|The term Matriarchy is a reproduction from that 19. Century and
corresponds etymologically to designations such as monarchy, hierarchy,
patriarchy, etc. (From Greek mÍtÍr "mother" and archÍ "beginning, origin", later also "rule").
Society in Balance
Although most anthropologists associate the term Matriarchy with the
work of J.J. Bachofen or L.H. Morgan, it was used for the first time by
E.B. Taylor (1896) in an article with the title "The Matriarchal Family
system". Bachofen used the term "Gynaikokratie" (from Greek. gyne "woman" and kratos "to
rule, prevail") in the sub-title of its German issue of "The
Motherright" (Das Mutterrecht, 1861). In the English edition this was
translated however falsely with "matriarchy".
In English-language countries, in particular the USA, the term
matriarchy is understood therefore until today as "woman's rule", and
not only by laymen, but also by outstanding encyclopedias, as for
instance the Encyclopedia Britannica, and also by reference books in
other languages, even Germans.
When internationally the first ethnologists and scholars of
matriarchal studies began to learn about peoples who showed
matrilocality and matrilineage they drew falsely the conclusion that
mothers are rulers, on the one hand because of the translation error,
and in addition, in similarity to their own patriarchal culture.
The modern studies of matriarchy corrected this misunderstanding in
the German-speaking countries in the sixties 20. Century and
investigates since then this field. The first world congress for
Matriarchal studies took place 2003 in Luxembourg.
In the international science discourse the term matriarchy is
maintained, although sometimes it is misconstrued as "mother's rule" or
"woman's rule"; both never existed in accordance to today's state
Today Matriarchy is used in the sense of "motherly beginning" as a
beginning of a cycle, because these societies are coined by cyclic
thinking unlike linear.
Replacements as gylanic, matrilinear, matrilocal, matrifocal, egalitarian etc. instead of matriarchal are problematic, because
first of all thereby only several characteristics of
matriarchal societies are taken into account and not this social
order as whole.
Secondly these reducing terms are used to deny the existence of matriarchal societies and are unfit therefore.
It is important to fill and correctly use the term Matriarchy
with error free and unmistakable contents.